Pulitzer Prize

  Poetry & Prose    Books / People

The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in, inter alia, newspaper, magazine and literature in the United States. This prize system has been in place since 1917 and is funded by the will of Joseph Pulitzer (an American who made a fortune by publishing newspapers). At present the annual prizes are decided upon and granted by Columbia University, New York City.




📙 His Family
Ernest Poole


📙 The Magnificent Ambersons
Booth Tarkington


1920: No award given


📙 The Age of Innocence
Edith Wharton


📙 Alice Adams
Booth Tarkington


📙 One of Ours
Willa Cather


📙 The Able McLaughlins
Margaret Wilson


📙 So Big
Edna Ferber


📙 Arrowsmith
Sinclair Lewis (declined prize)


📙 Early Autumn
Louis Bromfield


📙 The Bridge of San Luis Rey
Thornton Wilder


📙 Scarlet Sister Mary
Julia Peterkin


1930: Laughing Boy by Oliver La Farge

Years of Grace
Margaret Ayer Barnes

The Good Earth by Pearl S. Buck

The Store by Thomas Sigismund Stribling

Lamb in His Bosom
Caroline Miller

Now in November
Josephine Winslow Johnson

Honey in the Horn
Harold L. Davis

Gone with the Wind
Margaret Mitchell

The Late George Apley
John Phillips Marquand

The Yearling
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings


The Grapes of Wrath
John Steinbeck


1942: In This Our Life by Ellen Glasgow

1943: Dragon’s Teeth by Upton Sinclair

1944: Journey in the Dark by Martin Flavin

1945: A Bell for Adano by John Hersey

1946: No award given

1947: All the King’s Men by Robert Penn Warren

1948: Tales of the South Pacific by James A. Michener

1949: Guard of Honor by James Gould Cozzens


1950: The Way West by A. B. Guthrie, Jr.

1951: The Town by Conrad Richter

1952: The Caine Mutiny by Herman Wouk

1953: The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway

1954: No award given[d]

1955: A Fable by William Faulkner

1956: Andersonville by MacKinlay Kantor

1957: No award given

The Voice At The Back Door by Elizabeth Spencer

1958: A Death in the Family by James Agee (posthumous win)

1959: The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters by Robert Lewis Taylor


1960: Advise and Consent by Allen Drury

1961: To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee

1962: The Edge of Sadness by Edwin O’Connor

1963: The Reivers by William Faulkner (posthumous win)

1964: No award given

Coat Upon a Stick by Norman Fruchter

Joanna and Ulysses by May Sarton

Careful, He Might Hear You by Sumner Locke Elliott

And Then We Heard the Thunder by John Killens

1965: The Keepers of the House by Shirley Ann Grau

1966: The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter by Katherine Anne Porter

1967: The Fixer by Bernard Malamud

1968: The Confessions of Nat Turner by William Styron

1969: House Made of Dawn by N. Scott Momaday


1970: The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford by Jean Stafford

1971: No award given

Losing Battles by Eudora Welty

Mr. Sammler’s Planet by Saul Bellow

The Wheel of Love by Joyce Carol Oates

1972: Angle of Repose by Wallace Stegner

1973: The Optimist’s Daughter by Eudora Welty

1974: No award given

Gravity’s Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon

1975: The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara

1976: Humboldt’s Gift by Saul Bellow

1977: No award given

A River Runs Through It by Norman MacLean

Roots by Alex Haley (special Pulitzer Prize)

1978: Elbow Room by James Alan McPherson

1979: The Stories of John Cheever by John Cheever


Entries from this point on include the finalists listed after the winner for each year.

1980: The Executioner’s Song by Norman Mailer

Birdy by William Wharton

The Ghost Writer by Philip Roth

1981: A Confederacy of Dunces by John Kennedy Toole (posthumous win)

Godric by Frederick Buechner

So Long, See You Tomorrow by William Maxwell

1982: Rabbit Is Rich by John Updike

A Flag for Sunrise by Robert Stone

Housekeeping by Marilynne Robinson

1983: The Color Purple by Alice Walker

Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant by Anne Tyler

Rabbis and Wives by Chaim Grade

1984: Ironweed by William Kennedy

Cathedral by Raymond Carver

The Feud by Thomas Berger

1985: Foreign Affairs by Alison Lurie

I Wish This War Were Over by Diana O’Hehir

Leaving the Land by Douglas Unger

1986: Lonesome Dove by Larry McMurtry

The Accidental Tourist by Anne Tyler

Continental Drift by Russell Banks

1987: A Summons to Memphis by Peter Taylor

Paradise by Donald Barthelme

Whites by Norman Rush

1988: Beloved by Toni Morrison

Persian Nights by Diane Johnson

That Night by Alice McDermott

1989: Breathing Lessons by Anne Tyler

Where I’m Calling From by Raymond Carver


1990: The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love by Oscar Hijuelos

Billy Bathgate by E. L. Doctorow

1991: Rabbit at Rest by John Updike

Mean Spirit by Linda Hogan

The Things They Carried by Tim O’Brien

1992: A Thousand Acres by Jane Smiley

Jernigan by David Gates

Lila: An Inquiry into Morals by Robert M. Pirsig

Mao II by Don DeLillo

1993: A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain by Robert Olen Butler

At Weddings and Wakes by Alice McDermott

Black Water by Joyce Carol Oates

1994: The Shipping News by E. Annie Proulx

The Collected Stories of Reynolds Price by Reynolds Price

Operation Shylock: A Confession by Philip Roth

1995: The Stone Diaries by Carol Shields

The Collected Stories of Grace Paley by Grace Paley

What I Lived For by Joyce Carol Oates

1996: Independence Day by Richard Ford

Mr. Ives’ Christmas by Oscar Hijuelos

Sabbath’s Theater by Philip Roth

1997: Martin Dressler: The Tale of an American Dreamer by Steven Millhauser

The Manikin by Joanna Scott

Unlocking the Air and Other Stories by Ursula K. Le Guin

1998: American Pastoral by Philip Roth

Bear and His Daughter: Stories by Robert Stone

Underworld by Don DeLillo

1999: The Hours by Michael Cunningham

Cloudsplitter by Russell Banks

The Poisonwood Bible by Barbara Kingsolver


2000: Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri

Close Range: Wyoming Stories by Annie Proulx

Waiting by Ha Jin

2001: The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay by Michael Chabon

Blonde by Joyce Carol Oates

The Quick and the Dead by Joy Williams

2002: Empire Falls by Richard Russo

The Corrections by Jonathan Franzen

John Henry Days by Colson Whitehead

2003: Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides

Servants of the Map: Stories by Andrea Barrett

You Are Not a Stranger Here by Adam Haslett

2004: The Known World by Edward P. Jones

American Woman by Susan Choi

Evidence of Things Unseen by Marianne Wiggins

2005: Gilead by Marilynne Robinson

An Unfinished Season by Ward Just

War Trash by Ha Jin

2006: March by Geraldine Brooks

The Bright Forever by Lee Martin

The March by E. L. Doctorow

2007: The Road by Cormac McCarthy

After This by Alice McDermott

The Echo Maker by Richard Powers

2008: The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Díaz

Shakespeare’s Kitchen by Lore Segal

Tree of Smoke by Denis Johnson

2009: Olive Kitteridge by Elizabeth Strout

All Souls by Christine Schutt

The Plague of Doves by Louise Erdrich


2010: Tinkers by Paul Harding

In Other Rooms, Other Wonders by Daniyal Mueenuddin

Love in Infant Monkeys by Lydia Millet

2011: A Visit From the Goon Squad by Jennifer Egan

The Privileges by Jonathan Dee

The Surrendered by Chang-Rae Lee

2012: No award given.[6]

Train Dreams by Denis Johnson

Swamplandia! by Karen Russell

The Pale King by David Foster Wallace (posthumous nominee)

2013: The Orphan Master’s Son by Adam Johnson

What We Talk About When We Talk About Anne Frank by Nathan Englander

The Snow Child by Eowyn Ivey

2014: The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt

The Son by Philipp Meyer

The Woman Who Lost Her Soul by Bob Shacochis

2015: All the Light We Cannot See by Anthony Doerr

Let Me Be Frank with You by Richard Ford

The Moor’s Account by Laila Lalami

Lovely, Dark, Deep by Joyce Carol Oates

2016: The Sympathizer by Viet Thanh Nguyen[7]

Get in Trouble: Stories by Kelly Link

Maud’s Line by Margaret Verble

2017: The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead[8]

Imagine Me Gone by Adam Haslett

The Sport of Kings by C. E. Morgan

2018: Less by Andrew Sean Greer

In the Distance by Hernan Diaz

The Idiot by Elif Batuman

2019: The Overstory by Richard Powers

The Great Believers by Rebecca Makkai

There There by Tommy Orange



1962: The Making of the President 1960 by Theodore White

1963: The Guns of August by Barbara W. Tuchman

1964: Anti-intellectualism in American Life by Richard Hofstadter

1965: O Strange New World by Howard Mumford Jones

1966: Wandering Through Winter by Edwin Way Teale

1967: The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture by David Brion Davis

1968: Rousseau and Revolution, vol. 10 of The Story of Civilization, by Will and Ariel Durant

1969: So Human an Animal by René Jules Dubos

1969: The Armies of the Night by Norman Mailer


1970: Gandhi’s Truth by Erik H. Erikson

1971: The Rising Sun by John Toland

1972: Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911–45 by Barbara W. Tuchman

1973: Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam by Frances FitzGerald

1973: Children of Crisis, vols. 2 and 3, by Robert Coles

1974: The Denial of Death by Ernest Becker

1975: Pilgrim at Tinker Creek by Annie Dillard

1976: Why Survive? Being Old In America by Robert Neil Butler

1977: Beautiful Swimmers by William W. Warner

1978: The Dragons of Eden by Carl Sagan

1979: On Human Nature by Edward O. Wilson


The finalists are indented, ordinarily two each year.

1980: Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid by Douglas Hofstadter

The Madwoman in the Attic by Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar

The Medusa and the Snail by Lewis Thomas

1981: Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture by Carl E. Schorske

China Men by Maxine Hong Kingston

Goodbye, Darkness: A Memoir of the Pacific War by William Manchester

Southerners: A Journalist’s Odyssey by Marshall Frady

1982: The Soul of a New Machine by Tracy Kidder

Basin and Range by John McPhee

Mrs. Harris: The Death of the Scarsdale Diet Doctor by Diana Trilling

1983: Is There No Place on Earth for Me? by Susan Sheehan

The Fate of the Earth by Jonathan Schell

Terrorists and Novelists by Diane Johnson

1984: The Social Transformation of American Medicine by Paul Starr

Conversations With the Enemy by Winston Groom and Duncan Spencer

Wild Justice by Susan Jacoby

1985: The Good War: An Oral History of World War Two by Studs Terkel

Endless Enemies by Jonathan Kwitny

Dawn to the West by Donald Keene

1986 (two winners): Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of Three American Families by J. Anthony Lukas

Move Your Shadow: South Africa, Black and White by Joseph Lelyveld

Habits and the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life by Robert Neelly Bellah

1987: Arab and Jew: Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land by David K. Shipler

Rising from the Plains by John McPhee

Rain or Shine: A Family Memoir by Cyra McFadden

1988: The Making of the Atomic Bomb by Richard Rhodes

Chaos: Making a New Science by James Gleick

Setting Limits: Medical Goals in an Aging Society by Daniel Callahan

1989: A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam by Neil Sheehan

The Last Farmer by Howard Kohn

Coming of Age in the Milky Way by Timothy Ferris


1990: And Their Children After Them by Dale Maharidge and Michael Williamson

Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History by Stephen Jay Gould

A Peace to End All Peace: Creating the Modern Middle East 1914-1922 by David Fromkin

1991: The Ants by Bert Hölldobler and Edward O. Wilson

Looking for a Ship by John McPhee

River of Traps: A Village Life by William duBuys and Alex Harris

1992: The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power by Daniel Yergin

Chain Reaction: The Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics by Thomas Byrne Edsall and Mary D. Edsall

Broken Vessels by Andre Dubus

1993: Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America by Garry Wills

Days of Obligation: An Argument with My Mexican Father by Richard Rodriguez

Where the Buffalo Roam by Anne Matthews

A Chorus of Stones: The Private Life of War by Susan Griffin

1994: Lenin’s Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire by David Remnick

The Cultivation of Hatred: The Bourgeois Experience, Victoria to Freud by Peter Gay

The End of the Twentieth Century: And the End of the Modern Age by John Lukacs

1995: The Beak of the Finch: A Story of Evolution in Our Time by Jonathan Weiner

How We Die: Reflections on Life’s Final Chapter by Sherwin B. Nuland

Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil: A Savannah Story by John Berendt

1996: The Haunted Land: Facing Europe’s Ghosts After Communism by Tina Rosenberg

Mr. Wilson’s Cabinet of Wonder by Lawrence Weschler

Darwin’s Dangerous Idea: Evolution and The Meanings of Life by Daniel C. Dennett

1997: Ashes to Ashes: America’s Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris by Richard Kluger

Fame and Folly by Cynthia Ozick

The Inheritance: How Three Families and America Moved from Roosevelt to Reagan and Beyond by Samuel G. Freedman

1998: Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies by Jared Diamond

How the Mind Works by Steven Pinker

Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mt. Everest Disaster by Jon Krakauer

1999: Annals of the Former World by John McPhee

The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do by Judith Rich Harris

Crime and Punishment in America by Elliott Currie


2000: Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II by John W. Dower

The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory by Brian Greene

Living on the Wind: Across the Hemisphere with Migratory Birds by Scott Weidensaul

2001: Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan by Herbert P. Bix

A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius by Dave Eggers

Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing by Ted Conover

2002: Carry Me Home: Birmingham, Alabama, the Climactic Battle of the Civil Rights Revolution by Diane McWhorter

The Noonday Demon: An Atlas of Depression by Andrew Solomon

War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals by David Halberstam

2003: “A Problem from Hell”: America and the Age of Genocide by Samantha Power

The Anthropology of Turquoise: Meditations on Landscape, Art, and Spirit by Ellen Meloy

The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature by Steven Pinker

2004: Gulag: A History by Anne Applebaum

The Mission: Waging War and Keeping Peace with America’s Military by Dana Priest

Rembrandt’s Jews by Steven Nadler

2005: Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 by Steve Coll

The Devil’s Highway: A True Story by Luis Alberto Urrea

Maximum City: Bombay Lost and Found by Suketu Mehta

2006: Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain’s Gulag in Kenya by Caroline Elkins

The Assassins’ Gate: America in Iraq by George Packer

Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 by Tony Judt

2007: The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 by Lawrence Wright

Crazy: A Father’s Search Through America’s Mental Health Madness by Pete Earley

Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq by Thomas E. Ricks

2008: The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939–1945 by Saul Friedlander

The Cigarette Century by Allan M. Brandt

The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century by Alex Ross

2009: Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II by Douglas A. Blackmon

The Bitter Road to Freedom: A New History of the Liberation of Europe by William I. Hitchcock

Gandhi and Churchill: The Epic Rivalry That Destroyed an Empire and Forged Our Age by Arthur L. Herman


2010: The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy by David E. Hoffman

The Evolution of God by Robert Wright

How Markets Fail: The Logic of Economic Calamities by John Cassidy

2011: Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer by Siddhartha Mukherjee

The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains by Nicholas G. Carr

Empire of the Summer Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the Most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History by S.C. Gwynne

2012: The Swerve: How the World Became Modern by Stephen Greenblatt

One Hundred Names For Love: A Stroke, a Marriage, and the Language of Healing by Diane Ackerman

Unnatural Selection: Choosing Boys over Girls, and the Consequences of a World Full of Men by Mara Hvistendahl

2013: Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America by Gilbert King

Behind the Beautiful Forevers: Life, Death and Hope in a Mumbai Undercity by Katherine Boo

The Forest Unseen: A Year’s Watch in Nature by David George Haskell

2014: Toms River: A Story of Science and Salvation by Dan Fagin

The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger and a Forgotten Genocide by Gary J. Bass

The Insurgents: David Petraeus and the Plot to Change the American Way of War by Fred Kaplan

2015: The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History by Elizabeth Kolbert[2]

No Good Men Among the Living by Anand Gopal

Age of Ambition: Chasing Fortune, Truth, and Faith in the New China by Evan Osnos

2016: Black Flags: The Rise of ISIS by Joby Warrick[3]

Between the World and Me by Ta-Nehisi Coates

If the Oceans Were Ink: An Unlikely Friendship and a Journey to the Heart of the Quran by Carla Power

2017: Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City by Matthew Desmond[4]

In a Different Key: The Story of Autism by John Donvan and Caren Zucker

The Politics of Mourning: Death and Honor in Arlington National Cemetery by Micki McElya

2018: Locking Up Our Own: Crime and Punishment in Black America by James Forman Jr.[5]

The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin’s Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World—and Us by Richard O. Prum

Notes on a Foreign Country: An American Abroad in a Post-American World by Suzy Hansen

2019: Amity and Prosperity: One Family and the Fracturing of America by Eliza Griswold[6]

In a Day’s Work: The Fight to End Sexual Violence Against America’s Most Vulnerable Workers by Bernice Yeung

Rising: Dispatches from the New American Shore by Elizabeth Rush

Investigative Reporting


1953: Edward J. Mowery, New York World-Telegram & Sun, “for his reporting of the facts which brought vindication and freedom to Louis Hoffner.”

1954: Alvin McCoy, The Kansas City Star, “for a series of exclusive stories which led to the resignation under fire of C. Wesley Roberts as Republican National Chairman.”

1955: Roland Kenneth Towery, Cuero Record (Texas), “for his series of articles exclusively exposing a scandal in the administration of the Veterans’ Land Program in Texas. This 32-year-old World War II veteran, a former prisoner of the Japanese, made these irregularities a state-wide and subsequently a national issue, and stimulated state action to rectify conditions in the land program.”

1956: Arthur Daley, The New York Times, “for his outstanding coverage and commentary on the world of sports in his daily column, Sports of the Times.

1957: Wallace Turner and William Lambert, Portland Oregonian, “for their expose of vice and corruption in Portland involving some municipal officials and officers of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America, Western Conference. They fulfilled their assignments despite great handicaps and the risk of reprisal from lawless elements.”

1958: George Beveridge, Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), “for his excellent and thought-provoking series, “Metro, City of Tomorrow,” describing in depth the urban problems of Washington, D.C., which stimulated widespread public consideration of these problems and encouraged further studies by both public and private agencies.”

1959: John Harold Brislin, Scranton Tribune and Scrantonian, “for displaying courage, initiative and resourcefulness in his effective four-year campaign to halt labor violence in his home city, as a result of which ten corrupt union officials were sent to jail and a local union was embolden to clean out racketeering elements.”

1960: Miriam Ottenberg, Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), “for a series of seven articles exposing a used-car racket in Washington, D.C., that victimized many unwary buyers. The series led to new regulations to protect the public and served to alert other communities to such sharp practices.”

1961: Edgar May, Buffalo Evening News, “for his series of articles on New York State’s public welfare services entitled, Our Costly Dilemma, based in part on his three-month employment as a state case worker. The series brought about reforms that attracted nationwide attention.”

1962: George Bliss, Chicago Tribune, “for his initiative in uncovering scandals in the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, with resultant remedial action.”

1963: Oscar Griffin Jr., Pecos Independent and Enterprise, “who as editor initiated the exposure of the Billie Sol Estes scandal and thereby brought a major fraud on the United States government to national attention with resultant investigation, prosecution and conviction of Estes.”

Pulitzer Prize for Local Investigative Specialized Reporting[edit]

1964: James V. Magee, Albert V. Gaudiosi and Frederick Meyer, Philadelphia Bulletin, “for their expose of numbers racket operations with police collusion in South Philadelphia, which resulted in arrests and a cleanup of the police department.”

1965: Gene Goltz, Houston Post, “for his expose of government corruption Pasadena, Texas, which resulted in widespread reforms.”

1966: John Anthony Frasca, Tampa Tribune, “for his investigation and reporting of two robberies that resulted in the freeing of an innocent man.”

1967: Gene Miller, Miami Herald, “for initiative and investigative reporting that helped to free two persons wrongfully convicted of murder.”

1968: J. Anthony Lukas, The New York Times, “for the social document he wrote in his investigation of the life and the murder of Linda Fitzpatrick.”

1969: Al Delugach and Denny Walsh, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, “for their campaign against fraud and abuse of power within the St. Louis Steamfitters Union, Local 562.”

1970: Harold Eugene Martin, Montgomery Advertiser and Alabama Journal, “for his expose of a commercial scheme for using Alabama prisoners for drug experimentation and obtaining blood plasma from them.”

1971: William Jones, Chicago Tribune, “for exposing collusion between police and some of Chicago’s largest private ambulance companies to restrict service in low income areas, leading to major reforms.”

1972: Timothy Leland, Gerard M. O’Neill, Stephen A. Kurkjian and Ann Desantis, Boston Globe, “for their exposure of widespread corruption in Somerville, Massachusetts.”

1973: The Sun Newspapers Of Omaha, “for uncovering the large financial resources of Boys Town, Nebraska, leading to reforms in this charitable organization’s solicitation and use of funds contributed by the public.”

1974: William Sherman, New York Daily News, “for his resourceful investigative reporting in the exposure of extreme abuse of the New York Medicaid program.”

1975: Indianapolis Star, “for its disclosures of local police corruption and dilatory law enforcement, resulting in a cleanup of both the Police Department and the office of the County Prosecutor.”

1976: Staff of Chicago Tribune, “for uncovering widespread abuses in Federal housing programs in Chicago and exposing shocking conditions at two private Chicago hospitals.”

1977: Acel Moore and Wendell Rawls Jr., The Philadelphia Inquirer, “for their reports on conditions in the Farview (Pa.) State Hospital for the mentally ill.”

1978: Anthony R. Dolan, Stamford Advocate, “for a series on municipal corruption.”

1979: Gilbert M. Gaul and Elliot G. Jaspin, Pottsville Republican (Pennsylvania), “for stories on the destruction of the Blue Coal Company by men with ties to organized crime.”

1980: Stephen A. Kurkjian, Alexander B. Hawes Jr., Nils Bruzelius, Joan Vennochi and Robert M. Porterfield, Boston Globe, “for articles on Boston’s transit system.”

1981: Clark Hallas and Robert B. Lowe, Arizona Daily Star, “for their investigation of the University of Arizona Athletic Department.”

1982: Paul Henderson, Seattle Times, “for reporting which proved the innocence of a man convicted of rape.”

1983: Loretta Tofani, The Washington Post, “for her investigation of rape and sexual assault in the Prince George’s County, Maryland Detention Center.”

1984: Kenneth Cooper, Joan Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Kaufman, Norman Lockman, Gary McMillan, Kirk Scharfenberg and David Wessel, Boston Globe, “for their series examining race relations in Boston, a notable exercise in public service that turned a searching gaze on some the city’s most honored institutions including the Globe itself.”

Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting[edit]

1985: Lucy Morgan and Jack Reed, St. Petersburg Times (Florida), “for their thorough reporting on Pasco County Sheriff John Short, which revealed his department’s corruption and led to his removal from office by voters.”

1985: William K. Marimow, The Philadelphia Inquirer, “for his revelation that city police dogs had attacked more than 350 people – an exposure that led to investigations of the K-9 unit and the removal of a dozen officers from it.”

1986: Jeffrey A. Marx and Michael M. York, Lexington Herald-Leader (Kentucky), “for their series ‘Playing Above the Rules,’ which exposed cash payoffs to University of Kentucky basketball players in violation of NCAA regulations. However, the UK basketball program did little to reform itself in the wake of the articles; true reform would not come until the program was involved in another cash-for-recruits scandal three years later.”

1987: Daniel R. Biddle, H.G. Bissinger, and Fredric N. Tulsky, The Philadelphia Inquirer, “for their series ‘Disorder in the Court,’ which revealed transgressions of justice in the Philadelphia court system and led to federal and state investigations.”

1988: Dean Baquet, William C. Gaines, and Ann Marie Lipinski, Chicago Tribune, “for their detailed reporting on the self-interest and waste that plague Chicago’s City Council.”

1989: Bill Dedman, Atlanta Journal and Constitution, “for his investigation of the racial discrimination practiced by lending institutions in Atlanta, reporting which led to significant reforms in those policies.”

1990: Lou Kilzer and Chris Ison, Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune, “for reporting that exposed a network of local citizens who had links to members of the St. Paul fire department and who profited from fires, including some described by the fire department itself as being of suspicious origin.”

1991: Joseph T. Hallinan and Susan M. Headden, The Indianapolis Star, “for their shocking series on medical malpractice in the state.”

1992: Lorraine Adams and Dan Malone, The Dallas Morning News, “for reporting that charged Texas police with extensive misconduct and abuses of power.”

1993: Jeff Brazil and Steve Berry, Orlando Sentinel (Florida), “for exposing the unjust seizure of millions of dollars from motorists – most of them minorities – by a sheriff’s drug squad.”

1994: Providence Journal-Bulletin (Rhode Island) staff, “for thorough reporting that disclosed pervasive corruption within the Rhode Island court system.”

1995: Stephanie Saul and Brian Donovan, Newsday, “for their stories that revealed disability pension abuses by local police.”

1996: The Orange County Register staff, “for reporting that uncovered fraudulent and unethical fertility practices at a leading research university hospital and prompted key regulatory reforms.”

1997: Eric Nalder, Deborah Nelson, and Alex Tizon, The Seattle Times, for their investigation of widespread corruption and inequities in the federally sponsored housing program for Native Americans, which inspired much-needed reforms.

1998: Gary Cohn and Will Englund, The Baltimore Sun, “for their compelling series on the international shipbreaking industry that revealed the dangers posed to workers and the environment when discarded ships are dismantled.”

1999: The Miami Herald staff, “for its detailed reporting that revealed pervasive voter fraud in a city mayoral election that was subsequently overturned.”


2000: Sang-Hun Choe, Charles J. Hanley, and Martha Mendoza, Associated Press, “for a report on the killings of Korean civilians by American soldiers in the early days of the Korean War.”

2001: David Willman, Los Angeles Times, “for his pioneering exposé of seven unsafe prescription drugs that had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and an analysis of the policy reforms that had reduced the agency’s effectiveness.”

2002: Sari Horwitz, Scott Higham, and Sarah Cohen, The Washington Post, “for a series that exposed the District of Columbia’s role in the neglect and death of 229 children placed in protective care between 1993 and 2000, which prompted an overhaul of the city’s child welfare system.”

2003: Clifford J. Levy, The New York Times, “for his vivid, brilliantly written series ‘Broken Homes’ that exposed the abuse of mentally ill adults in state-regulated homes.”

2004: Michael D. Sallah, Joe Mahr, and Mitch Weiss, Toledo Blade, “for a series on atrocities by the Tiger Force during the Vietnam War.”

2005: Nigel Jaquiss of Willamette Week, Portland, Oregon, “for his investigation exposing former governor Neil Goldschmidt‘s long concealed sexual misconduct with a 14-year-old girl.”

2006: Susan Schmidt, James V. Grimaldi and R. Jeffrey Smith of The Washington Post, “for their indefatigable probe of Washington lobbyist Jack Abramoff that exposed congressional corruption and produced reform efforts.”

2007: Brett Blackledge of The Birmingham News, “for his exposure of cronyism and corruption in the state’s two-year college system, resulting in the dismissal of the chancellor and other corrective action.”

2008: (Two winning newspapers) Walt Bogdanich and Jake Hooker of The New York Times, “for their stories on toxic ingredients in medicine and other everyday products imported from China, leading to crackdowns by American and Chinese officials.” Staff of The Chicago Tribune, “for its exposure of faulty governmental regulation of toys, car seats and cribs, resulting in the extensive recall of hazardous products and congressional action to tighten supervision.”

2009: David Barstow of The New York Times, for his tenacious reporting that revealed how some retired generals, working as radio and television analysts, had been co-opted by the Pentagon to make its case for the war in Iraq, and how many of them also had undisclosed ties to companies that benefited from policies they defended.”


2010: Barbara Laker and Wendy Ruderman of the Philadelphia Daily News and Sheri Fink of ProPublica, in collaboration with The New York Times Magazine. Laker and Ruderman won for “their resourceful reporting that exposed a rogue police narcotics squad, resulting in an FBI probe and the review of hundreds of criminal cases tainted by the scandal”, Fink for “a story that chronicles the urgent life-and-death decisions made by one hospital’s exhausted doctors when they were cut off by the floodwaters of Hurricane Katrina.”

2011: Paige St. John of the Sarasota Herald-Tribune, “for her examination of weaknesses in the murky property-insurance system vital to Florida homeowners, providing handy data to assess insurer reliability and stirring regulatory action.”

2012: (Two winning newspapers) Matt Apuzzo, Adam Goldman, Eileen Sullivan and Chris Hawley of the Associated Press, “for their spotlighting of the New York Police Department’s clandestine spying program that monitored daily life in Muslim communities, resulting in congressional calls for a federal investigation, and a debate over the proper role of domestic intelligence gathering,” and Michael J. Berens and Ken Armstrong of The Seattle Times, “for their investigation of how a little known governmental body in Washington State moved vulnerable patients from safer pain-control medication to methadone, a cheaper but more dangerous drug, coverage that prompted statewide health warnings.”

2013: David Barstow and Alejandra Xanic von Bertrab The New York Times, “for their reports on how Wal-Mart used widespread bribery to dominate the market in Mexico, resulting in changes in company practices.”

2014: Chris Hamby of The Center for Public Integrity, Washington, D.C. “for his reports on how some lawyers and doctors rigged a system to deny benefits to coal miners stricken with black lung disease, resulting in remedial legislative efforts.”[3]

2015: (Two winners) Eric Lipton of The New York Times “for reporting that showed how the influence of lobbyists can sway congressional leaders and state attorneys general, slanting justice toward the wealthy and connected” and The Wall Street Journal staff “for ‘Medicare Unmasked,’ a pioneering project that gave Americans unprecedented access to previously confidential data on the motivations and practices of their health care providers.”[4] The Wall Street Journal team included John Carreyrou, Chris Stewart, Rob Barry, Tom McGinty, Martin Burch, Jon Keegan and Stuart Thompson.[5]

2016: Leonora LaPeter Anton and Anthony Cormier of the Tampa Bay Times and Michael Braga of the Sarasota Herald-Tribune “for a stellar example of collaborative reporting by two news organizations that revealed escalating violence and neglect in Florida mental hospitals and laid the blame at the door of state officials.”

Eric Eyre of Charleston Gazette-Mail, Charleston, West Virginia “for courageous reporting, performed in the face of powerful opposition, to expose the flood of opioids flowing into depressed West Virginia counties with the highest overdose death rates in the country.”[6]

The staff of The Washington Post “for purposeful and relentless reporting that changed the course of a Senate race in Alabama by revealing a candidate’s alleged past sexual harassment of teenage girls and subsequent efforts to undermine the journalism that exposed it.”

Matt Hamilton, Harriet Ryan and Paul Pringle of the Los Angeles Times “for consequential reporting on a University of Southern California gynecologist accused of violating hundreds of young women for more than a quarter-century.”


English style guide
The English language
Booker / “Nobel” / Pulitzer
Elizabethan era / “Love letters”
“Definitive List of Literary Works”
French in English / Latin in English
Anthology / Chronology / Terminology
Phrases & idioms with their etymologies
Literary criticism: analysing poetry & prose
Glossary of works, writers and literary devices:
📙 Books       📕 Poets       📗 Thinkers       📘 Writers

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Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986) was a French writer, philosopher and political activist. She is known for her 1949 treatise The Second Sex, a detailed analysis of women's oppression and a foundational tract of contemporary feminism.
The Second Sex
Delta of Venus
Delta of Venus
A Room of one's own
A Room of One’s Own
War and Peace is the 1869 novel by Russian author Leo Tolstoy. It is regarded as a classic of world literature. (The novel chronicles the French invasion of Russia and the impact of the Napoleonic era on Tsarist society through the stories of five Russian aristocratic families.) Tolstoy said War and Peace is "not a novel, even less is it a poem, and still less a historical chronicle." Tolstoy regarded Anna Karenina as his first true novel.
War and Peace
The Trial, by Franz Kafka (1914 [1925]) -- A terrifying psychological trip into the life of one Joseph K., an ordinary man who wakes up one day to find himself accused of a crime he did not commit, a crime whose nature is never revealed to him. Once arrested, he is released, but must report to court on a regular basis--an event that proves maddening, as nothing is ever resolved. As he grows more uncertain of his fate, his personal life--including work at a bank and his relations with his landlady and a young woman who lives next door--becomes increasingly unpredictable. As K. tries to gain control, he succeeds only in accelerating his own excruciating downward spiral.
The Trial
Brave New World (1932) is a dystopian novel by English author Aldous Huxley. Set in a futuristic World State, whose citizens are environmentally engineered into an intelligence-based social hierarchy, the novel anticipates huge scientific advancements in reproductive technology, sleep-learning, psychological manipulation and classical conditioning that are combined to make a dystopian society which is challenged by only a single individual: the story's protagonist (one Bernard Marx). In 1999, the Modern Library ranked Brave New World at number five on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th c.
Brave New World
Beloved is a 1987 novel by the late American writer Toni Morrison. The novel won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1988 and, in a survey of writers and literary critics compiled by The New York Times, it was ranked the best work of American fiction from 1981 to 2006. The work, set after the American Civil War of 1861 to 1865, was inspired by the life of Margaret Garner, an African American who escaped slavery by crossing the Ohio River to Ohio, a free state. Garner was subsequently captured and decided to kill her infant daughter rather than have her taken into slavery.
The Grapes of Wrath

The Prophet is a book of 26 prose poetry fables written in English by the Lebanese-American poet and writer Kahlil Gibran. The Prophet has been translated into over 100 different languages, making it one of the most translated books in history. Moreover, it has never been out of print.The Prophet
“If you love somebody, let them go, if they don’t return, they were never yours.”
The Essential Rumi, by Rumi ~ e.g. ~ 'Lovers don't finally meet somewhere. They're in each other all along.'The Essential Rumi
“Lovers do not finally meet somewhere. They are in each other all along.”
Ways of Escape, a journey of sorts -- 'I was dead, deader than dead because, I was still alive.'Ways of Escape:
a journey of sorts

A short excerpt from the book: “I was dead, deader than dead because, I was still alive.”
The Significance of Literature, the podcast series.The Significance of

A podcast series that chronologically charts the key works of poetry and prose.
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