Short story = written to be read at a single sitting. Novella = written to be read in several sittings. Novel = written to be read in multiple sittings.
Lyric poetry = expresses thoughts or feelings. Narrative poetry = the narrator is a storyteller. Dramatic poetry = the narrator interacts with others.
Comedy = from disorder to order, ends happily. Tragedy = from order to disorder, ending badly. Tragicomedy = mixes tragedy and comedy.
LITERATURE lit-er-a-ture | [noun]
∎ Written works, especially those considered of superior or lasting artistic merit.
∎ Books and writings published on a particular subject.
∎ Leaflets and other printed matter used to advertise products or give advice.
LITERARY lit-er-ar-y | [adjective]
∎ Concerning the writing, study, or content of literature, especially of the kind valued for quality of form.
∎∎ “Orwell’s are among the great literary works of the twentienth century”
LITERAL lit-er-al | [adjective]
∎ Taking words in their usual or most basic sense without metaphor or exaggeration.
∎ (of a translation) representing the exact words of the original text.
∎∎ “A literal translation from the Arabic”
∎∎∎ synonyms: word-for-word, verbatim, line-for-line, letter-for-letter
∎ (of a person or performance) lacking imagination; prosaic.
∎∎ “his interpretation was rather too literal”
∎∎∎ synonyms: literal-minded, factual
∎∎∎∎ antonyms: whimsical
flash-back | [noun]
∎ A scene in a film, novel, etc. set in a time earlier than the main story.
∎ “In a series of flashbacks, we follow the pair through their teenage years”
Flashback is a literary device wherein the author depicts the occurrence of specific events to the reader, which have taken place before the present time the narration is following, or events that have happened before the events that are currently unfolding in the story.
Flashback devices that are commonly used are past narratives by characters, depictions and references of dreams and memories and a sub device known as authorial sovereignty wherein the author directly chooses to refer to a past occurrence by bringing it up in a straightforward manner.
Flashback is used to create a background to the present situation, place or person.
IMAGERY im-age-ry | [noun]
∎ Visually descriptive or figurative language, especially in a literary work.
∎ “The poet Tennyson uses imagery to create a lyrical emotion”
∎ “The film’s nostalgic imagery was very powerful”
In literature, one of the strongest devices is imagery wherein the author uses words and phrases to create “mental images” for the reader. Imagery helps the reader to visualize more realistically the author’s writings.
The usage of metaphors, allusions, descriptive words and similes amongst other literary forms in order to “tickle” and awaken the readers’ sensory perceptions is referred to as imagery.
Foreshadowing is an advance sign or warning of what is to come in the future. The author of a mystery novel might use foreshadowing in an early chapter of her book to give readers an inkling of an impending murder.
WForeshadowing is used as a literary device to tease readers about plot turns that will occur later in the story. hen you want to let people know about an event that is yet to occur, you can use foreshadowing.
A fortune teller might use foreshadowing, warning that a short life line is a sign of some impending disaster.