APA

(American Psychological Association)

Poetry & Prose

APA is often used to cite and reference sources that you use in your academic writing (an author-date reference style); another common formatting style is Chicago (CMS). With APA, there are “in-text” citations and “post-text” references. So, if you use information from a source like Steven Pinker’s “The Language Instinct”, you would cite it in the text like: (Pinker, 1994) or Pinker (1994) or Pinker (1994, p. 75) and reference it at the end like: Pinker, S. (1994). The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. London: Penguin.

(SURNAME, YYYY) this is the default option:
… was necessary (Smith, 1988).
… was the result (Adams & Almansouri, 2013).

(ORGANISATION, YYYY) use if there are no author details:
… was necessary (UNDP, 1988).
… was the result (IMF, 2013).

(TITLE, YYYY) use if source has no author/organisation details:
… was necessary (Liquid Gold, 1988).
… was the result (Trade Imbalances, 2013).

(SURNAME, ??) if source has no date use n.d. “No Date”:
… was necessary (Jones & Marsden, n.d.).
… was the result (World bank, n.d.).


APA provides a comprehensive formatting and styling guide (the layout and structure of your writing). In fact, APA covers all aspects of the writing process, inter alia, plagiarism, language tone, construction of tables and graphs. The pages below show a sample document in APA format (pink) with good academic-style writing points (blue).

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Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007).


English Literature
“Elizabethan era” / “Love letters”
Anthology / Chronology / Terminology
Glossary of works, writers & literary devices:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
📕 Reading lists 📗 Poets of note 📘 Writers of note
*      *      *      *      *      *
§ ‒ Latin in English
§ ‒ French in English
§ ‒ APA format & referencing guide
§ ‒ CMS format & referencing guide
§ ‒ Phrases & Idioms (inc. etymology)
📝 Analytical techniques (for poetry & prose)

Literacy, Literally

Genre = a type or kind of literature.

Fiction = narrative prose literature.
Poetry = metrical literature.
Drama = representational literature.


Fiction

Short story = written to be read at a single sitting.
Novella = written to be read in several sittings.
Novel = written to be read in multiple sittings.


Poetry

Lyric poetry =  expresses thoughts or feelings.
Narrative poetry = the narrator is a storyteller.
Dramatic poetry = the narrator interacts with others.


Drama

Comedy = from disorder to order, ends happily.
Tragedy = from order to disorder, ending badly.
Tragicomedy = mixes tragedy and comedy.


LITERATURE
lit-er-a-ture | [noun]
∎ Written works, especially those considered of superior or lasting artistic merit.
2.
∎ Books and writings published on a particular subject.
3.
∎ Leaflets and other printed matter used to advertise products or give advice.



LITERARY
lit-er-ar-y | [adjective]
∎ Concerning the writing, study, or content of literature, especially of the kind valued for quality of form.
∎∎ “Orwell’s are among the great literary works of the twentienth century”



LITERAL
lit-er-al | [adjective]
∎ Taking words in their usual or most basic sense without metaphor or exaggeration.
2.
∎ (of a translation) representing the exact words of the original text.
∎∎ “A literal translation from the Arabic”
∎∎∎ synonyms: word-for-word, verbatim, line-for-line, letter-for-letter
3.
∎ (of a person or performance) lacking imagination; prosaic.
∎∎ “his interpretation was rather too literal”
∎∎∎ synonyms: literal-minded, factual
∎∎∎∎ antonyms: whimsical


 

A Place in Time

Tic-Toc Goes the Circadian Clock

An unknown person gazes over a mended wall, digging deep into their soul, they wonder if yonder, the trees really are greener.

Between two trunks is a nightingale lodged in her nest. She sings seductively, but who’s here to hear, feel and follow?

A sun dial sits alone in a well manicured garden, unobtrusively it tells of the shortening of time: ‘Summer will soon be Fall.’

Flashback

Literary Terminology:

FLASHBACK
flash-back | [noun]
∎ A scene in a film, novel, etc. set in a time earlier than the main story.
∎ “In a series of flashbacks, we follow the pair through their teenage years”

 

Flashback is a literary device wherein the author depicts the occurrence of specific events to the reader, which have taken place before the present time the narration is following, or events that have happened before the events that are currently unfolding in the story.

Flashback devices that are commonly used are past narratives by characters, depictions and references of dreams and memories and a sub device known as authorial sovereignty wherein the author directly chooses to refer to a past occurrence by bringing it up in a straightforward manner.

Flashback is used to create a background to the present situation, place or person.

Imagary

Literary Terminology:

IMAGERY
im-age-ry | [noun]
∎ Visually descriptive or figurative language, especially in a literary work.
∎ “The poet Tennyson uses imagery to create a lyrical emotion”
∎ “The film’s nostalgic imagery was very powerful”

 

In literature, one of the strongest devices is imagery wherein the author uses words and phrases to create “mental images” for the reader. Imagery helps the reader to visualize more realistically the author’s writings.

The usage of metaphors, allusions, descriptive words and similes amongst other literary forms in order to “tickle” and awaken the readers’ sensory perceptions is referred to as imagery.

Foreshadowing

Literary Terminology:

FORESHADOW
fore-shad-ow | [verb]
∎ Be a warning or indication of (a future event).
∎ “Other new measures are foreshadowed in the draft script.”

Synonyms:
augur, presage, portend, foretell, indicate, suggest, signal, herald, forewarn, anticipate.

 

Foreshadowing is an advance sign or warning of what is to come in the future. The author of a mystery novel might use foreshadowing in an early chapter of her book to give readers an inkling of an impending murder.

WForeshadowing is used as a literary device to tease readers about plot turns that will occur later in the story. hen you want to let people know about an event that is yet to occur, you can use foreshadowing.

A fortune teller might use foreshadowing, warning that a short life line is a sign of some impending disaster.